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Types of Artificial Intelligence | Different AI Type | Complete Details


Artificial Intelligence is more like human intelligence. The basic difference is Artificial intelligence is the intelligence carried out by the machines whereas human intelligence is the intelligence carried out by humans. A machine with Artificial Intelligence type technologies is capable of performing advanced tasks. There are many types of Artificial Intelligence depending upon various criteria. In this post, we will explore 2 Artificial Intelligence types (AI types): AI type 1 is a classification based on capabilities and AI type 2 is based on functionalities.

Types Of Artificial Intelligence (AI Types):


AI is a very broad topic. It can be classified in any number of types but there are mainly 2 types of AI classifications: AI type 1 (based on capabilities) and Artificial Intelligence type 2 (based on functionalities).


Artificial Intelligence (AI) Type 1: Classification Based on Capabilities:


On the basis of capabilities there are 2 types of AI.


1) Strong AI:

Machines that have strong AI type technology have following features:

  • Decision-making ability
  • Capacity to learn from past experiences
  • Ability to perform the task on its own

Image displays the robot which has the strong AI type technology. It is the best AI among 2 types of AI when the classification is based on capabilities.
Strong AI

A machine with strong Artificial Intelligence type technologies is capable of performing advanced tasks. In this, machines can think like a human mind. 

2) Weak AI or Narrow AI:


Apple’s Siri and Google Assistant are examples of weak AI. These can hold the conversation with actual people like usually the google assistant does. But it fails when it is engaged in the conversation for which it is not programmed to respond to. Means weak ai is good for the situations for which they are programmed, but beyond that, they fail. Machines that have weak AI type technology has the following features:


  • Only good at performing a particular task.
  • Image recognition, speech recognition, etc are other examples of weak ai.

Image displays apple's siri which has a weak artificial intelligence type technology. It is less advanced among the 2 types of artificial intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) Type 2: Classification Based on Functionalities:


On the basis of functionalities there are 4 types of Artificial Intelligence

1) Reactive Machines:


Reactive machines are a very basic type of AI system. They cannot learn anything from past experiences and cannot form any memories. They just react depending upon the currently existing situation. Past experiences can’t influence the current decisions of reactive machines. The examples of reactive machines are:


  • Deep Blue (IBM’s chess-playing supercomputer): Deep Blue was a chess-playing supercomputer. It defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov on 10 Feb 1996. Deep Blue doesn’t have any past experiences & memories. But it has the power to identify a chessboard and its pieces. It knows the function of every piece. Most importantly, it has the ability to predict the next move of its opponent. Analyzing all the situations it makes the best move.
  • Alpha Go: Alpha Go was a computer program that plays the popular Chinese board game “Go“. It defeated many professional Go players. Alpha Go has 3 more advanced versions like “Alpha Go master”, “Alpha Go Zero” and “Alpha Zero”. “Alpha Go master” has beaten Ke Jie in 2017, the world’s number 1 ranked “Go” player at that time.

Image displays the IBM's chess-playing supercomputer (reactive machine).
chess-playing supercomputer


These reactive machines are good at the game’s point of view that involves strategic thinking. But beyond this, they can’t be used in other fields of the world. This is a very basic type of AI when compared to other types of Artificial Intelligence.


2) Limited Memory:


Autonomous vehicles generally use this type of AI. Self-driving cars or driver-less cars use limited memory AI. In these autonomous vehicles some memories are pre-programmed like:


  • If there is a car in-front then push the break.
  • Push the break, if the traffic light is red.
  • Take the turn, if the path is clear.
  • etc….

Image displays the driver-less car representing the limited memory type AI.
Driver-less car


Now the work of limited memory is to store current observations like (in case of driverless cars) the traffic light is on, the path is not clear, the traffic light is on, etc. All these current observations are stored in limited memory and the action is taken by the car. As soon as the action is taken the previous observations in the limited memory get cleared. After that, it stores new observations. In this way, this AI type works.


So, limited memory stores data for a very less time.


3) Theory of Mind AI:


Theory of mind researchers are trying to build machines that exhibit human features like:


  • Responding to emotions.
  • Taking decisions by itself.
  • Capable of holding a conversation with humans.
  • Behaving like a human.
  • Replicating the emotions based on the situations.
  • Learning from past experiences.

These things constitute the theory of mind. The main thing is to create a machine or robot exhibiting the features of human beings. Theory of mind is a very advanced type of Artificial Intelligence technology when compared to the above 2 types of AI.


4) Self Awareness AI:


This is the most advanced type of AI when compared to all other Artificial Intelligence types. This type of Artificial Intelligence is not currently existent.


Image displays the robot that are charging themselves. This type of Artificial Intelligence is very advanced type among other types of artificial intelligence.
Self-Aware AI


Self Awareness AI involves a machine that can take care of itself. Means machines that are self-aware. For example, if the machine is getting discharged. In this case, as soon as the machine recognizes that its battery is low, it automatically goes to the charging point and charges itself. This type of Artificial Intelligence is referred to as Self Aware AI.


Theory of Mind AI vs. Self Awareness AI:


Theory of mind is a type of Artificial Intelligence that just focuses on the areas that involve, machines interacting like humans, exhibiting decision-making capability, exhibiting emotions, etc. Most importantly in this theory of mind AI, machines are not self-aware about there needs. While self-awareness AI also focuses on the needs and demands of the machines. Both these types of AI are considered very advanced.


Ways to Achieve AI:


1) Machine Learning:


Image displays the machine learning which is the most used artificial intelligence type when compared to other types of artificial intelligence.


In machine learning, we train the machine to perform only a particular task. Let us understand with an example. Suppose there is a machine and it has to identify that the person standing in-front is a boy or a girl. Now there are 2 situations in which machine can identify the person:



  • Situation 1: We code and specify the features to identify a boy or a girl through coding in a machine. So that machine can easily identify the person.
  • Situation 2: We physically teach the machine. That is, we will show many different girls to the machine and we will tell the machine that this type of person is called a girl. And the machine will form a structure about the girl. And if a similar type of person comes in front of the machine, it identifies that this is a girl.

Machine learning works through situation 2. In machine learning, we train the machine for a particular task. This is the most used type of AI among many types of Artificial Intelligence.


2) Natural Language Processing:


It is a field of Artificial Intelligence in which machine automatically manipulate text, speech, etc. Some of its examples are:


  • Spell check in which software automatically detects wrong spellings.
  • Email spam filters: The unwanted emails automatically get stored in the spam folder.

Image displays Grammerly spell checker.
Grammerly Spell-checker


This type of AI is frequently used when compared to other types of Artificial Intelligence.


3) Vision:


It is a field of AI in which machines can see through the camera as humans see through the eyes. There are many types of examples in this field. Some of its examples are:


  • Self-driving cars have computer vision that uses cameras, ultrasonic sensors, etc to detect objects, traffic signals, etc.

Image displays the eye of the robot.
Vision


4) Robotics:


It is a field of Artificial Intelligence that focuses on designing and creating Robots. For example, Hanson created a Robot named Sophia. A very advanced robot that can communicate and use facial expressions to convey human-like emotions. Moreover, it can learn from past experiences. You might have seen the video of Sophia at the beginning of this article. This type of Artificial Intelligence is not much frequently used when compared to other types of AI.


Image displays the robotics AI type which is frequently used when compared to other types of AI.
Robot


5) Autonomous Vehicles:


This field of AI includes autonomous vehicles. Some of its examples are:


  • Autopilot Flying Drones.
  • Driver-less Cars.

Image displays the drone representing autonomous vehicle which is very less used AI type when compared to other types of artificial intelligence.
Drone


And there are many such types of examples in which the destination is feed to the vehicle. And the vehicle automatically reaches to its destination without human intervention. This type of AI is very less used when compared to other types of Artificial Intelligence.


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